Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS was born on August 13, 1918. Sanger is an English biochemist and twice a Nobel laureate in chemistry. He is the fourth (and only living) person to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes. Sanger was born in Rendcomb, a small village in Gloucestershire, the second son of Frederick Sanger, a medical practitioner, and his wife, Cicely. He was educated at Bryanston School and then completed his Bachelor of Arts in natural sciences from St John’s College, Cambridge in 1939.  Raised as a Quaker, he learned to abhor violence, and during the Second World War he was a conscientious objector, being allowed to continue his research for a PhD.


He originally intended to study medicine, but became interested in biochemistry because some of the leading biochemists in the world were at Cambridge at the time. He completed his PhD in 1943 under A. Neuberger, on lysine metabolism and a more practical problem concerning the nitrogen of potatoes. He went on to discover the structure of proteins, most famously that of insulin protein. He also contributed to the determination of base sequences in DNA. Sanger determined the complete amino acid sequence of insulin in 1955. In doing so, he proved that proteins have definite structures.  Sanger concluded that the protein insulin had a precise amino acid sequence. It was this achievement that earned him his first Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1958. In 1975, he developed the chain termination method of DNA sequencing, also known as the Dideoxy termination method or the Sanger method. Two years later he used his technique to successfully sequence the genome of the Phage Φ-X174; the first fully sequenced DNA-based genome. He did this entirely by hand. This has been of key importance in such projects as the Human Genome Project and earned him his second Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1980, together with Walter Gilbert. 


Original Frederick Sanger Autograph, signed on a 3 x 5 inch Index Card. There is a light rust stain where a paper clip had once been. Regular Price – $ 95.00 / Sale Price – $ 44.95.

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